Race Relations: Most Popular Articles
This review of cultural appropriation offers a definition of the practice, examples of appropriation and quotes about it.
Ever been confused about which racial term to use to describe a certain group? Find out which racial terms are derogatory and why as well as the alternative racial names you can use instead.
Meaning of stereotype explained.
What is a stereotype? Stereotypes are qualities assigned to groups of people related to their race, nationality and sexual orientation, to name a few. Find out why stereotypes should be avoided.
What is racism, really? Explore the definition of racism. Learn what internalized racism is as well as other forms of racism, such as horizontal racism and reverse racism. Examine examples of racism from the past and the present.
Racism is more complicated than simply one racial group hating and oppressing another group. Institutions may discriminate against racial groups. People with racial prejudices may engage in covert or subtle acts of racism against others. Moreover, people of color who’ve suffered as a result of pervasive white supremacist ideologies may battle internalized racism, or self-hatred related to being part of a minority group.
The United States is known for its slang, but some expressions Americans use casually are considered racially offensive. If you want to avoid inadvertently hurting someone with your language, use this list to learn which terms to retire from your vocabulary. Page 2.
Everyday racism includes treating people from racial minority groups differently than other groups or ignoring people of color. Learn about this disturbing but common practice.
This analysis of the common ways blacks are typecast in Hollywood reveals why stereotypical roles do a disservice to the African-American community.
Latinos have more political power than ever before. A major voting bloc, both Republicans and Democrats court the Hispanic population. In the Civil Rights era, however, Latinos had to fight to be heard. They voiced their concerns in what is known as the Chicano Movement.
Racial prejudice is a term that's used all the time, but what does it mean exactly? How does it intersect with racial stereotyping, racial profiling and institutional racism?
Hollywood has a long history of portraying Middle Eastern people as terrorists, Islamic fundamentalists, misogynists and other negative stereotypes that result in real life Arab Americans facing racial discrimination and other forms of mistreatment.
People often highlight the differences between Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr., but the men share much in common as well. This highlights where the men overlap.
Colorism is a practice of discrimination by which those with lighter skin are treated more favorably than those with darker skin.
Institutional racism in the church, medicine and in the legal system, to name a few, has perpetuated discrimination in the United States for generations.
This overview explores the ways in which racial minority groups, including blacks, Hispanics, Arabs, Asians and Native Americans, are stereotyped in film and television.
Classic Hollywood icons often downplayed their ethnic makeup because studios demanded it. This led many famous people to engage in the practice known as “passing for white.” Do you know which stars passed for white in film or in their personal lives?
Asian Americans mobilized around political causes in the 1960s and ’70s during the Asian-American Civil Rights Movement. An apology to Japanese American internees, an end to the Vietnam War and ethnic studies programs in colleges were major movement causes. Today, Asian Americans continue to be politically active and recently celebrated the entry of the first Chinese American woman in Congress.
Racism makes news headlines every day. But what about so-called reverse racism? What are some examples of this phenomenon, and what's the best way to define it? Is reverse racism even real?
Harry Belafonte, Natalie Wood, Wesley Snipes and Salma Hayek are some of the stars who have been featured in films about interracial romance. Want to see which other actors made this list of notable movies depicting interracial couples? This catalog of interracial love films spans the decades.
What is colorism? Find out more about skin color discrimination, its origins in and outside of the United States and the impact it has had on black America and other communities of color. There’s a reason why sales of skin-whitening creams continue to soar and why the most prominent people of color tend to have light skin. The answer is colorism.
How are ethnic minorities affected by racism in society? They sometimes turn racism inward, hating their own racial group as a result. This is known as internalized racism.
In today’s society, blacks are widely represented in U.S. society. So, is Black History Month still relevant, or worse yet, is it racist? The benefits and drawbacks to celebrating black history may be more complex than you think. Page 2.
Race is arguably the most divisive aspect of Western society. One’s access to quality housing, health care and education varies depending on race. Although we live in a racially stratified society, the concept of race didn’t always exist. So, what is race, what are its origins in America, and why do scientists say they have little use for this concept?
With yearly celebrations of Black History Month taking place in the United States for decades, it’s easy to think that such cultural observances have always been a part of American society. In fact, Americans didn’t come together to recognize the contributions of blacks until the early 20th century. Thanks to the efforts of pioneering historian Carter G. Woodson, Black History Month became a phenomenon observed by Americans of all racial backgrounds.
Definition of affirmative action.
This list of stereotypes about Hispanics in film and television break down why sweeping generalizations about Latinos miss the mark.
How are race and ethnicity different? This overview uses definitions and examples to distinguish these two concepts.
This overview of Native American stereotypes in television and film reveals how often the racial group has been labeled as warriors, beautiful maidens, magical medicine men and other characters that influence public perception of American Indians.
Fraught with potential tensions, the history of interracial relationship issues in the U.S. is long. Learn how to confront the issues that arise from loving across color lines.
The least funny jokes around aren’t knock-knock jokes but racist ones. So, what’s the best way to respond when someone tells a racist joke? Aim to handle yourself and the joke-teller with integrity.
This list examines five common stereotypes about Asian Americans featured in television and film, including the dragon lady, the geek, the prostitute, the foreigner and the martial artist.
Making sure employees from different racial backgrounds feel comfortable at work has several benefits. Not only can encouraging diversity in the workplace enhance team spirit, it can also boost creativity and promote a sense of investment in the company. By following a few simple guidelines, it's fairly easy to create a work setting in which employees of all backgrounds feel valued.
Racial discrimination lawsuits filed against high-profile companies such as Walmart, Abercrombie & Fitch and General Electric indicate that racism in the workplace continues to serve as a barrier for people of color.
Because Native Americans are one of the nation’s smallest minority groups, many people aren’t as familiar with them as they are with the country’s larger racial groups. Given the long history indigenous peoples have in the Americas, that’s a shame. The U.S. Census Bureau has culled together a series of interesting trivia about Native Americans—from how many identify as mixed race to the largest Native American tribes and the states home to the greatest numbers of indigenous peoples. With this info, learn more about the history of Native Americans and where they stand today.
Bullies pick on classmates from everything to the grades they get to the way they dress, but what happens when race enters the picture? Discover which steps to take to end racist bullying in school.
Learn more about cultural appropriation with this roundup of noteworthy books, blogs and websites about the persistent phenomenon.
Despite growing interest in Africa around the globe, racial stereotypes about it persist. This list of common myths about Africa aims to clear them up.
A number of strategies exist on how to deal with racism, but one way that often proves ineffective is calling someone a racist. Using this label typically backfires because it results in defensiveness and insincere apologies, among other reasons.
This overview about Latinos and immigration breaks down common stereotypes the public has about Hispanic Americans, including that they are all recent immigrants, they all speak Spanish and that all undocumented immigrants are Mexicans.
Definition of Racial Profiling. Race Relations.
African-American women are NOT destined to remain single; the majority of successful black men do NOT marry outside the race. Research that busts the myths.
Do you know as much about America’s largest minority groups as you think? The information the U.S. Census Bureau has pieced together about African Americans, Latinos and Asian Americans, to name a few, shed light on the size of these populations, where they live in the United States as well as their achievements and challenges.
The debate over affirmative action has yet to die down. Learn about the pros and cons of affirmative action and the impact it has had on social progress in America.
Racial bias and discrimination come in many forms, including racism, racial profiling, racial stereotypes and racial prejudice. Learn more about these types of bigotry with this overview.
Today interracial couples appear on television shows all the time, but for much of the 20th century seeing individuals from different racial backgrounds marry or become romantically involved on the small screen was a major taboo. This list highlights some of television’s early interracial couples.
In the 20th century, women of color—blacks, Puerto Ricans and Native Americans—were targeted for sterilization by the U.S. government. This overview provides details on what happened.
Mixed-race children face unique challenges, but raising biracial children who are happy and healthy is possible if parents teach them to embrace all facets of their racial makeup, settle in diverse communities and choose schools that celebrate multiculturalism, among other measures.
When the Irish arrived in the United States they faced racial stereotypes and discrimination, largely because of how the English had treated them in the Old World. They managed to overcome bias by distancing themselves from other racial minorities rather than aligning with them.
Black history is filled with a countless amount of important events. But what moments in black history are most shocking? The assassination of a civil rights icon, a boycott that was supposed to last just one day and two race riots made the list.
An increasing number of Americans identify as multiracial, but myths about mixed-race people persist. This list aims to break down misconceptions about multiracial identity.
Once upon time African Americans were the racial group most closely associated with acts of racial profiling and police brutality. Increasingly, however, Latinos are the group on the receiving end of police brutality, deadly force and other abuses of law enforcement’s power.
World War II had a tremendous impact on race relations in the United States.
Race-based stereotypes and myths pose a huge threat to equality. Racial stereotypes and myths lead to prejudice and hatred, which, in turn, lead to discrimination against entire ethnic groups. The problem is that those who make up racial groups are so unique that no generalization can capture who they are. To deconstruct stereotypes, it’s important to know how they work, which ones are most common and which behaviors contribute to ethnic stereotyping. Racism won’t go away until racial myths do.
A list of interesting facts about poet and writer Maya Angelou.
In honor of Black History Month, the U.S. Census Bureau has highlighted statistics about the African American demographic that may change one’s views of the black population. The census information points out that black businesses are booming, blacks exercise their right to vote in large numbers and are attending college in record numbers.
A group of white firefighters alleged that the city of New Haven, Conn., discriminated against them when it threw out a test that white firefighters passed at a 50% greater rate than blacks. Performance on the test was the basis for promotion. By discarding the test, the city prevented the white firefighters eligible for promotion from advancing to captain and lieutenant rank. Does this case, known as Ricci v. DeStefano, constitute reverse discrimination?
Definition of Institutional Racism
When black history month rolls around each year, many focus on the accomplishments of black activists and inventors. However, black poets, politicians and war heroes are among the historical figures who’ve left indelible marks on U.S. society for hundreds of years now. Learn more about their contributions to American culture
Learn the key facts about the United States’ involvement in the slave trade with this overview that details when the slave trade began, how many slaves were brought to the New World and when the county outlawed the importation of slaves, among other issues.
Aunt Jemima and Uncle Ben are just some of the African American faces that have been used to advertise food over the years.
Definition of tragic mulatto myth.
The high fashion world has embraced Native American styles like never before—featuring moccasins, mukluks, fringe bags and feather earrings in runway collections. But is couture paying tribute to indigenous communities or simply ripping them off in a callous form of cultural appropriation?
In 1961, a coalition of black and white civil rights activist embarked on a dangerous journey from Washington D.C. to the Deep South to protest segregation on interstate bus lines. They endured beatings from white supremacist mobs as well as arson attempts, but through their efforts, Jim Crow on interstate bus and rail lines was finally struck down.
The United States celebrates Irish American History Month in March. It's a month that's yet to enjoy the recognition of the much more popular St. Patrick's Day. Celebrate Irish American Heritage Month by becoming more acquainted with the Irish American population.
You think you’ve been a victim of racial discrimination during a job interview, but you’re not sure. Learn about the questions interviewers may ask that violate your civil rights and how to take action against a discriminatory employer.
How did MTV shift from arguably shutting African American musicians out in the 1980s to routinely spotlighting their contributions decades later?
After 9-11, racial profiling garnered much support. Opponents of racial profiling, however, say the practice is ineffective and actually hinders legal investigations. So, what alternatives exist? Moreover, what can you do if you’re racially profiled?
When the Tuskegee Airmen emerged as war heroes during World War II, the military was racially segregated and many doubted that African Americans could carry out complex missions. The Airmen changed that perception with their heroic feats in the sky.
Interracial marriage may be increasingly common in the United States, but a number of myths about interracial relationships remain. This list examines the assumptions society makes about interracial couples.
Definition of passing for white.
Interracial dating now has more support than ever among the American public, so much so that some people prefer dating interracially to dating within their own race. Unfortunately, some people pursue interracial relationships for the wrong reasons—to acquire status, cure an inferiority complex or because everyone else seems to be doing it. Find out the wrong reasons to date interracially with this list of tips and advice.
What’s the best way to handle disapproval of your interracial relationship? Communication and boundary-setting are key. Above all else, take the steps necessary to protect your relationship in the face of ongoing negativity.
After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor,the U.S. ordered some 110,000 Japanese Americans into internment camps.Three refused.Their cases went to the Supreme Court
Definition of Jim Crow. Race Relations.
If you have racist family members, there are several steps you can take to prevent their behavior from having a negative impact on you, such as setting limits and giving consequences for their behavior.
Learn more about apartheid in South Africa with this brief history of the racially stratified social system.
Kamala Harris is the first woman of color Attorney General in California's history. Some have dubbed her “the female Obama.”
This overview provides facts and background about a variety of cultural heritage months, including Native American Heritage Month, Black History Month and Hispanic Heritage Month.
Just what is Kwanzaa? One of the newer American holidays, Kwanzaa originated in the turbulent 1960s to instill racial pride and unity in the black community. Now, fully recognized in mainstream America and elsewhere, Kwanzaa is widely celebrated.
It's become increasingly popular for people to dress up as someone from a different race for Halloween. Halloween observers can avoid common racial gaffes by following tips such as not wearing blackface, Afro wigs and other items that may be regarded as racist.
Both leaders and members of religious institutions can help to make their church diverse. Everything from where a church serves to what kind of music it features during worship can influence its racial makeup. End racial segregation in church by making diversity a priority.
By consulting diversity experts, encouraging team building and setting ground rules, you can hold diversity workshops that pay off.
Never has it been more crucial to counter racist behavior by distinguishing politically correct terms from racist terms.
While most Americans are familiar with holidays such as Kwanzaa and Martin Luther King Day, other holidays of particular interest to African Americans remain off the radar of mainstream America. This overview highlights holidays such as Juneteenth and Loving Day and provides history and background information on the “black” holidays with which Americans are already familiar.
Columbus Day has been official U.S. holiday since 1937, but civil rights activists argue that Christopher Columbus should not be honored. They say that when the Italian explorer made his way to the New World, he treated the indigenous peoples he encountered inhumanely—introducing them to torture, sexual exploitation, colonization and capitalism.
This review of racial profiling defines what the practice is, the groups it most affects and why profiling is an ineffective law enforcement practice.
The series of speeches the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. gave throughout his life reveal much about his political views, activist strategies and perspectives on morality and international relations. These excerpts from various King speeches paint a broader picture of who King was.
This overview examines celebrities who have been accused of cultural appropriation because of their behavior, style of dress, music videos and more.
This overview highlights quotes from Malcolm X that demonstrate why he emerged as one of the most significant and controversial figures in black history.
This overview of civil rights movies from the late 1980s on illustrates which films in the genre offer a balanced perspective of the movement and which films fall short.
Without the help of the Navajos who enlisted in the Marines as code talkers, World War II could’ve turned out very differently for the United States. The military code based on the complex Navajo language proved impossible for the Japanese to decipher. Thanks to the Navajo code talkers, the U.S. military was able to carry out important missions during the war without interference. For decades after their crucial contributions during World War II, these Native American war heroes went unrecognized. That shifted in 2000 when the government finally gave the code talkers the honors they deserved.
This profile of Malcolm X highlights interesting facts and key moments in the activist’s life.
When CNN anchor Don Lemon came out as gay, he was applauded for being one of the few high-profile blacks to do so. Lemon’s announcement sparked debate about why other famous gay minorities remain closeted. Yet, the list of famous gay people of color who’ve come out is growing. In addition to black gay and lesbian celebrities, the list includes gay Latino celebrities and famous gay Asian Americans. This compilation includes more than 20 such celebrities.
Definition of the racial slur Oreo.
This bio of NASA astronaut Jose Hernandez chronicles how the child of Mexican migrant workers realized his dream of traveling to space.
Racial bias in medicine was pervasive in the 20th century, but it hasn’t been wiped out in contemporary America. This overview illustrates how racism continues to influence the medical arena.
For many Americans, Thanksgiving means family, food and football. For others, particularly Native Americans, the day is one of mourning. So, should Thanksgiving be celebrated? Is it possible to have a Thanksgiving celebration that does not romanticize interactions between Pilgrims and American Indians?
America has a long line of anti-racist activists. Follow the lead of the country’s trailblazers in race relations by learning how to take part in protests, letter-writing campaigns and media interviews. Learn the importance of anti-racist activism.
This list of information about Malcolm X’s life, work and family paints a clearer picture of who the activist really was.
Racial discrimination in the workplace is of grave concern to communities of color as the nation rebounds from the economic recession. But sometimes employers don't intentionally discriminate. They simply have hiring policies that weed out the bulk of minority candidates.
Arab American Heritage Month celebrates the contributions people of Middle Eastern descent have made to the U.S. and their history in the nation.
The effects of racial discrimination on minority groups run the gamut—from poor self-image to depression to suicide. This overview examines how racism can lead to depression and what measures communities of color can counter this phenomenon.
This profile highlights the key moments in the life of Betty Shabazz. Discover what her life was like before and after marriage to Malcolm X.
Job discrimination based on race is alive and well, but is it possible to avoid it while searching for work? Fortunately, yes. Learn which strategies to use to avoid hiring discrimination. Don’t be a victim.
Affirmative action and minorities are often linked, but are the ethnic groups who need it most reaping its benefits in college admissions? A look at how affirmative action plays out among Asian-American and African-American students suggests maybe not.
This overview examines the ways that racism and music have intersected over the years—from MTV shutting out black artists in its early years to pop stars today appropriating the cultures of racial minorities.
How have affirmative action bans in California, Texas and Florida affected college admissions in those states? Learn how affirmative action has affected diversity in public universities.
In an increasingly diverse employment sector, how can managers celebrate diversity at work and avoid hiring discrimination?
Azealia Banks has faced a public backlash for her beefs with other rappers, but that doesn't make her remarks about racism and cultural appropriation any less valid.
The National Urban League is one of the oldest civil rights groups in the nation. The NUL’s history includes activism in the Civil Rights Movement, providing college scholarships to African American youth and the creation of its groundbreaking State of Black America report.
This profile of Rage Against the Machine front man Zack de la Rocha chronicles his journey as a racially alienated youth in Orange County to an outspoken anti-racist musician.
Only a handful of major television networks have featuring African American women in starring roles. This roundup highlights the handful of network TV shows that have aired starring black women, including “Scandal” and “Julia.”
Language can benefit race relations or worsen them. Knowing which terms to avoid and which questions to avoid asking people of color can help foster cross-cultural relationships.
Still deciding what to be for Halloween? If you’re thinking about dressing up as an Indian, a Gypsy or a Geisha, you might want to reconsider. Avoid racially offensive Halloween costumes.
Strike down misperceptions about Black History Month by learning about the origins of the month-long observance and reflecting on the people and events that helped shape black history and, by extension, American history.
Today affirmative action is talked about so much, it seems like the practice has always been around. Actually, race-based preferences arose after hard-fought battles waged by civil rights leaders and acted on by U.S. presidents. Learn which events were the most noteworthy in affirmative action’s history.
Definition of the racial slur whitewashed.
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The perception that whites are more victimized by racism than people of color are has spread in recent years, but a number of people in the spotlight—from activists to entertainers to writers—argue that reverse racism is really just a myth. This overview highlights what prominent people have had to say on the subject.
This overview explores common Italian-American stereotypes in film and television.
This overview of xenophobia describes how the practice resulted in the internment of Japanese Americans, racist smear campaigns against Barack Obama and other politicians and racial profiling of Latinos, to name a few.
During the civil rights movement, a number of advocacy groups for people of color rose to prominence, including the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference. This profile about the Southern Christian Leadership Conference reveals the fundamental role the group played in the fight for civil rights.
Latinos are one of the fastest growing groups in the United States. Facts the U.S. Census Bureau has compiled about the Hispanic population reveal the strides Latinos have made in areas such as business and the areas of the country where Latinos live in large numbers.
Life on a predominantly white college campus will likely prove challenging for minority students, but there are ways for them to thrive at universities where racism is an issue.
In the early days of Hollywood, Native American actors were relegated to stereotypical roles in Cowboys and Indians flicks. Although Hollywood still has much progress to make in how it represents American Indians, talented Native American and First Nations actors from the U.S. and Canada have been leaving their mark on the film industry by playing a range of roles—from the dramatic to the comedic. Learn more about the roles that have made these Native American celebrities famous.
A number of studies indicate that even when whites and minorities work in the same fields, the latter earns less.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s decision to place more than 110,000 Japanese Americans in internment camps during World War II without warrant remains one of the most shameful periods in U.S. history. Angered that the federal government had violated their civil rights, some Japanese-American men refused to serve in the U.S. military when they received draft notices. They were known as No-No Boys and endured prison time for refusing to enlist in the military as well as scorn from Japanese Americans who disapproved of their decision.
The definition of miscegenation.
Many whites wonder why they can’t say the N-word if black people can. However, a number of blacks object to usage of the N-word and consider it offensive coming out of a black person’s mouth or a white person’s. Oprah Winfrey and Bill Cosby are among the blacks who’ve spoken out against the N-word.
Many Christian denominations have publicly apologized for supporting racial injustice in the past. The Catholic Church, the Episcopal Church and the Southern Baptist Convention are among those denominations that have asked forgiveness for perpetuating racial discrimination.
This profile of the American Indian Movement outlines the organization’s history and most high-profile actions, such as the Wounded Knee siege and the Alcatraz Island occupation. Learn about the movement’s goals, accomplishments and legacy today with this biography.
Today, intermarriage between members of ethnic minority groups thrives in places such as California, Florida and New York. Find out the unique challenges that interracial couples of color face and why such unions aren’t yet widely represented in popular culture.
Now that Magic Johnsons son EJ has been outed as gay, the Lakers legend has expressed support of him.
Many people would argue that it’s never okay to use the N-word, but there are a few times when uttering racial slur may be appropriate, such as when journalists report on the epithet.
Many of the achievements minority groups have made today can be directly traced to the he U.S. civil rights movement. With the information in this overview, discover the highlights of the civil rights movement, the challenges leaders such as the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. faced and the role groups such as the National Urban League played. The civil rights movement didn’t just advance the causes of African Americans but also motivated Asian Americans and Latinos.
A variety of U.S. holidays are regarded as racist or racially insensitive. Do holidays such as Columbus Day or Thanksgiving celebrate the conquest of Native Americans? Some activists argue so. What about Halloween? Observers of that holiday are increasingly accused of fueling stereotypes when they dress up as people of color from geishas to Gypsies to Aunt Jemima. Lastly, an enormous amount of confusion surrounds the Kwanzaa holiday. Is it just for black people? Do all blacks celebrate it? Demythologize this holiday by learning more about its focus and the communities it targets.
This overview details two examples of U.S. government sponsored medical racism: The Tuskegee and Guatemala Syphilis Studies.
Conservatives such as former “SNL” star Victoria Jackson have argued that there should be a White History Month, but in doing so they overlook why cultural heritage months began and that observances for white Americans already exist.
This overview highlights how medical racism leads today’s doctors to give patients of color fewer treatment options than white patients and how in the past, medical racism led to the compulsory sterilization of women of color and to minorities being used as guinea pigs for medical research.
Blackface first became popular during the minstrel shows of the 1830s, but in the new millennium it appears to be more popular than ever. The list of people wearing blackface today includes fashion models, entertainers and college students who don dark face paint during magazine spreads and costume parties. Because blackface historically stereotyped African Americans as ignorant buffoons, wearing the dark makeup is extremely controversial. That’s why people who’ve worn blackface in recent years have come under fire, no matter their racial background or intention.
Nat Turner, Denmark Vesey and Gabriel Prosser are among the African Americans who planned the most famous slave rebellions in North America.
Each November the U.S. government celebrates Native American Heritage Month with a series of events and activities. With this biography, learn more about the history and background of Native American Heritage Month and useful info to have while taking part in the observance. Native American Heritage Month is a time to reflect on the contributions of American Indians and Alaska Natives, the challenges they have overcome and continue to face.
People of color complain that they're often asked questions based on stereotypes and racist assumptions. Here are six questions not to ask members of racial minority groups.
Many African Americans have named their children unique names since the 1960s on, but studies have shown that blacks with “ethnic names” have faced racial discrimination from employers and others.
Coretta Scott King wasn’t just the widow of Martin Luther King but a civil rights activist in her own right.
Who were some of the earliest interracial couples featured on television? Which TV shows have featured black women as leads? When did MTV began featuring the videos of black performers? Discover the answers to these questions with this overview of race on television.
Just five actors of Latin American heritage have won Academy Awards. Learn more about these actors and their performances with this list of Latino Oscar winners.
Celebrate Black History Month by indulging in the foods that blacks eat today that have roots in West Africa, such as yams and okra.
No one wants to be called a racist but sometimes people who’ve been unquestionably racially insensitive protest the label by trotting out hackneyed excuses such as “some of my best friends are black.” This list explains why the excuses people commonly use to defend themselves against racism accusations don’t hold up.