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The Legal System

Once used to enforce racial discrimination, the legal system went on to enforce equal rights for all Americans. Particularly, Supreme Court decisions involving desegregation in schools and interracial marriage helped to change the landscape of race in America. Today, the legality of issues such as affirmative action and racial profiling continue to be discussed both in and outside of court. Moreover, the role of race and racism in politics continues to be debated.

Fighting Hate Crimes and Supporting Victims
This overview of hate crimes offers tips on how the public can fight against hate crimes and support victims of intolerance. It also demonstrates how Sikhs and the American public responded to the mass shooting at the Sikh Temple of Wisconsin, including by lashing out at Muslims. Lastly, the overview contains information about hate crime victim...

How Public Figures Reacted to The George Zimmerman Trial Verdict
A number of public figures released statements after a jury of six women found George Zimmerman not guilty July 13 of murdering unarmed teen Trayvon Martin in gated community in Sanford, Fla. This roundup of reactions to the not guilty verdict mirrors some of the responses the general public had to the trial’s outcome.

African-American Men And The Criminal Justice System
Does the criminal justice system treat blacks unfairly? An overview of statistics reveals that race plays a role in everything from sentencing to the likelihood that a person will be stopped and frisked by police.

Five Celebrities Who’ve Been Racially Profiled
A number of celebrities from minority backgrounds—from Questlove to Cat Stevens—have been racially profiled by authorities.

Sikh Temple Shooting Inspires Anti-Muslim Hate Crimes
Following the Sikh Temple of Wisconsin shooting which left seven dead, including the gunman, a spate of anti-Muslim hate crimes swept across the United States. This overview highlights the major incidents of Islamophobia that took place in August 2012.

Racial Controversies During the 2012 Presidential Race
This overview recaps the most racially insensitive remarks of the 2012 presidential race and other incidents that sparked racial controversies during the campaign.

Recap of the Travyon Martin Case and Aftermath
This overview of the Trayvon Martin case provides information on the events leading up to the 17-year-old’s murder, the controversies the case has sparked and biographical details about Martin and killer George Zimmerman. The summary also includes quotes from prominent figures about the case.

Facts About the Trayvon Martin Shooting
The killing of 17-year-old African American Trayvon Martin on Feb. 26, 2012, for “looking suspicious” as he walked through a gated community in Florida galvanized the black community and others across the nation to speak out against the series of killings of unarmed black men.

Notable Quotes About the Trayvon Martin Case
The killing of unarmed black youth Trayvon Martin Feb. 26, 2012, by a neighborhood watchman named George Zimmerman in Sanford, Fla., who thought the teen looked suspicious divided the nation along racial and political lines and led those in the public eye to make a series of provocative comments about injustice. This roundup of quotes shows the...

Who Benefits From Affirmative Action in College Admissions?
Affirmative action and minorities are often linked, but are the ethnic groups who need it most reaping its benefits in college admissions? A look at how affirmative action plays out among Asian-American and African-American students suggests maybe not.

The Affirmative Action Debate: Five Concerns
Is affirmative action really necessary? Better yet, is reverse discrimination an actual problem? Decades after affirmative action was introduced, debates about its pros and cons live on. Learn who benefits most from affirmative action in college admissions and what impact banning affirmative action in certain states has had. Do race-based preferences have a future in America?

Ricci v. DeStefano: A Case of Reverse Discrimination?
A group of white firefighters alleged that the city of New Haven, Conn., discriminated against them when it threw out a test that they passed at a 50% greater rate than blacks. Performance on the test was the basis for promotion. By discarding the test, the city prevented eligible white firefighters from advancing. Does this case, known as Ricci v. DeStefano, constitute reverse discrimination?

Affirmative Action Bans in Universities: Who Gains?
How have affirmative action bans in California, Texas and Florida affected student enrollment in public universities in those states? Enrollment of white students has declined following affirmative actions demise. On the other hand, Asian American enrollment has risen dramatically while black and Latino enrollment has dipped. How can the...

What Is Affirmative Action?
Definition of affirmative action.

Contemporary Affirmative Action: An Overview of Legislation
Debates have raged for years about the pros and cons of race-based preferences. But what’s the state of contemporary affirmative action, and is it helping to end discrimination? A review of recent laws and Supreme Court decisions involving affirmative action paints a picture.

The Real George Zimmerman
Information from his family and friends, previous run-ins with the law and general facts about his life paint a ragtag biography of George Zimmerman, the 28-year-old man who killed Trayvon Martin, setting off a national debate about race and violence.

The Case Against Racial Profiling
After 9-11, racial profiling garnered much support. Opponents of racial profiling, however, say the practice is ineffective and actually hinders legal investigations. So, what alternatives exist? Moreover, what can you do if you’re racially profiled?

Review of Racial Profiling
This review of racial profiling defines what the practice is, the groups it most affects and why profiling is an ineffective law enforcement practice.

The Real Trayvon Martin: Facts About the Slain Youth’s Life
Trayvon Martin faced a smear campaign by killer George Zimmerman and his defense team as well as by right-wing extremists in the months after his death. The slain teen’s family and friends have tried to set the record straight about his life by providing the media with info to piece together a bio of Trayvon that goes beyond the stereotypes that...

What The Jordan Davis and Trayvon Martin Killings Have in Common
An overview of what the Jordan Davis and Trayvon Martin killings have in common, including the outcome of their cases and the men who killed them.

Michael Dunn’s Letters and Conversation Reveal Racist Thought Patterns
Michael Dunn’s defense team argued that race played no role of his shooting of Jordan Davis, but Dunn’s letters and conversations reveal a series of racist thought patterns.

Reaction to the Michael Dunn Trial
A mistrial was declared in the Michael Dunn trial. Here’s how the parents of Jordan Davis, the black teen Dunn killed, civil rights groups and more reacted to the jury’s verdict in the case.

The Killing of Jordan Davis
An overview of the incidents that led up to Michael Dunn’s killing of Jordan Davis and the trial that followed.

Biographical Information About Shooting Victim Jordan Davis
Biographical details about the life of shooting victim Jordan Davis.

Who Is Michael Dunn?
Biography of Michael Dunn, the man who killed unarmed black teenager Jordan Davis during a disputed over loud music on Nov. 23, 2012.

George Zimmerman’s Arrests and Missteps After His Acquittal
A Florida jury found George Zimmerman not guilty of murder in July 2013 for killing black teenager Trayvon Martin the year before. Since his acquittal, however, Zimmerman has had various scrapes of the law and continued to be mired in controversy.

Who Is Michael Dunn?
Biography of Michael Dunn, the man who killed unarmed black teenager Jordan Davis during a disputed over loud music on Nov. 23, 2012.

Review of Jordan Davis’ Killing and Michael Dunn’s Trial
An overview of Jordan Davis’ killing, Michael Dunn’s trial and their influence on race relations in the U.S.

Sikhs and South Asians Weigh in on Temple Shooting
After a white supremacist gunned down six people at the Sikh Temple of Wisconsin, a number of Sikhs in the United States wrote about their responses to the shooting, the media’s response to the shooting and the discrimination Sikhs have long faced in the U.S.

Do Stop-and-Frisks in New York City Amount to Racial Profiling?
Each year tens of thousands of black and Latino New Yorkers are stopped and frisked by police. While city officials says the stop and frisk program has cut down on crime, civil liberties advocates say it constitutes racial profiling.

Latinos on the Receiving End of Racial Profiling and Police Brutality
Once upon time African Americans were the racial group most closely associated with acts of racial profiling and police brutality. Increasingly, however, Latinos are the group on the receiving end of police brutality, deadly force and other abuses of law enforcement’s power.

Shopping While Black: How to Detect This Practice and Respond…
Being followed around in stores, treated rudely or ignored by staffers may all be signs of "shopping while black." How can you tell if you’re being racially profiled while shopping, and what can you do about it?

Are Blacks Evolving on Gay Marriage?
Research on opinions about gay marriage has revealed that black voters are more likely to support gay marriage in 2012 than they were in 2008. In 2012, there was very little difference between the percentage of blacks who opposed same-sex marriage and the percentage of whites who did.

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