While individual Americans may harbor racist feelings about certain groups, racism in the United States would not have thrived if institutions hadn’t perpetuated discrimination against people of color for centuries. The institution of slavery kept blacks in bondage for generations. Other institutions, such as the church and legal system, played roles in maintaining slavery and segregation. Racism in medicine has led to unethical medical experiments involving people of color and to minorities still receiving substandard treatment today. At present, a number of groups—blacks, Latinos, Arabs and South Asians—find themselves racially profiled for a variety of reasons. If institutional racism
isn’t wiped out, there’s little hope that racial discrimination will ever be erased in the United States.
Arguably no episode in U.S. history has left a greater imprint on race relations than slavery, commonly referred to as the “peculiar institution.” Slavery continues to fuel racist attitudes and racial discrimination across the globe. Despite its far-reaching impact, many Americans would be hard-pressed to name basic facts about slavery, such as when it began, how many slaves were shipped to the U.S. and when it ended for everyone. Slaves in Texas, for example, remained in bondage two years after President Abraham Lincoln
signed the Emancipation Proclamation. The holiday Juneteenth celebrates the release of Texas slaves. Before legislation was passed to end slavery, slaves across the world fought for freedom by organizing slave rebellions. What’s more the descendants of slaves fought against attempts to perpetuate racism after slavery during the civil rights movement
Racism has influenced U.S. health care in the past and continues to do so today. The most shameful chapters in American history involve the U.S. government funding studies that allowed poor black men in Alabama to succumb to syphilis or Guatemalan prison inmates, mental health patients and soldiers to be afflicted with the disease and other sexually transmitted infections. Government agencies also played a role in sterilizing black women in North Carolina, Puerto Rican women and Native American women. Today, health care organizations appear to be taking steps to reach out to minority groups, such as the Kaiser Family Foundation’s landmark survey of black women in 2011.
Official U.S. Marine Corps Photo.
World War II marked both racial advancements and setbacks in United States. On one hand, it gave underrepresented groups such as blacks
and Native Americans the opportunity to show they had the skill and intellect necessary to excel in the military. On the other hand, Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor led the federal government to evacuate Japanese Americans from the West Coast and force them into internment camps for fear that they were still loyal to the Japanese empire. Years later the U.S. government issued a formal apology for its treatment of Japanese Americans. Not one Japanese American was found to have engaged in espionage during World War II.
Everyday untold numbers of Americans are the targets of racial profiling because of their ethnic background. People of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent report being routinely profiled at the nation’s airports. Black and Latino men have been disproportionately targeted by the New York City Police Department’s stop and frisk program. Moreover, states such as Arizona have faced criticism and boycotts for passing anti-immigrant legislation that civil rights activists
say has led to racial profiling of Hispanics.
Religious institutions have not been untouched by racism. A number of Christian denominations have apologized for discriminating against people of color by supporting Jim Crow and backing slavery. The United Methodist Church and the Southern Baptist Convention are some of the Christian organizations that have apologized for perpetuating racism in recent years. Today, many churches have not only apologized for alienating minority groups such as blacks but have also attempted to make their churches more diverse and appoint people of color in key roles. Despite these efforts, churches in the U.S. remain largely racially segregated.